Better know the vegetable oils to better use them

Better know the vegetable oils to better use them
For what use should we use olive oil, peanut or canola? What type of oil should I use for frying? It should be known that the use depends on the type of fatty acid contained in the oil. Each oil has a critical temperature called smoke point that must not be exceeded.

Manufacturing processes for vegetable oils

Vegetable oils can be extracted from oil seeds or pulp fruits. The lipid or fat content is between 12 and 65%.
OILSEEDS
% LIPIDS
Soy
canola
Sunflower
But
12-25
30-45
41-45
28-44
PULP FRUIT
Olive
Webbed
Coco
15-25
22
-65

Here is a brief overview of the processes used to obtain vegetable oils:

1. Rough cleaning
2. Grinding and conditioning (heat treatment)
3. Extraction by pressure (the seeds are passed under presses), by solvent (the crushed seeds are soaked in hexane, a solvent recovering the fat) or by a combination of the two methods.
4. Refining: Refining is used to remove the substances responsible for unpleasant smells and flavors.   The  various operations of refining (degumming, neutralization, decolorization and deodorization) are therefore aimed   at  improving the organoleptic qualities and the stability of the oils.

Virgin oil, cold pressed and other types of appellations

The virgin oil  comes from a first cold press, that is to say that it is extracted at a temperature below 50 ° C. It does not undergo chemical treatments or refining. As a result, it retains all its nutrients such as antioxidants (polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin E, etc.), pigments and free fatty acids. Olive oil is classified extra virgin , virgin  or pure according to its acidity. More fruity and tasty, extra-virgin olive oil has an acidity of less than 1%. The acidity indicates the state of degradation of the fat and thus makes it possible to determine the quality of the oil. The more it is degraded, the more the amount of free fatty acids and the acidity are high. The terms light or extra-light  refer to flavor or color instead. Refined oils do not carry the mention virgin or cold pressed. As for the term without cholesterol , it is useless because the vegetable oils do not contain it.

For what use can we use them?

For each oil, there is a critical temperature called smoke point. Exceeding this temperature leads to degradation of the product into carcinogenic compounds. If your oil starts to emit smoke, throw it away!
Refining increases the smoke point of the oil. This process removes free fatty acids, these fragments of fat molecules (triglycerides), which tend to burn easily. For example, a virgin olive oil will have a lower smoke point because of a higher free fatty acid content.
For frying, the oils must have a smoke point above 218 ° C. Oils containing a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids should also be avoided. They oxidize and deteriorate faster. These are soybean, canola and sunflower oils. The best cooking oils are refined peanut and olive oils. The use will therefore depend on the type of fatty acid contained in the oil. All oils contain saturated, monounsaturated (AGM) and polyunsaturated (AGP) fatty acids. Only the proportions vary. Oils with a higher amount of AGM will be more resistant to high temperatures.

TYPE
OIL
AC. GRAS
SATURATED (%)
AC.MONOINSATURATED FATS (%)
AC.POLYUNSATURATED FAT (%)
TEMPERATURE MAX .. ° C
Peanut
15-25
49-68
14-28
232 (refined), 160 (unrefined)
canola
2-8
56-65
26-32
204 (refined), 177 (semi-refined), 107 (blank)
Soy
12-20
18-27
54-72
232 (refined), 177 (semi-refined), 160 (unrefined)
Corn
10-18
25-33
57-64
232 (refined), 160 (unrefined)
Nuts
7-11
14-21
63-80
204 (semi-refined), 160 (unrefined)
Olive
13-22
62-81
4-15
242 (refined), 216 (blank), 191 (blank-extra)
Grape seed
11-17
15-23
65-73
216 (refined)
Sunflower
11-15
16-26
62-70
232 (refined or semi-refined), 107 (unrefined)
Sources:  http://www.iterg.com/IMG/pdf/Composition_HV.pdf
 htke-Points-of-Various-Fatstp://www.cookingforengineers.com/article/50/Smo

And conservation?

Being sensitive to oxidation, oils should be kept away from light, air and heat. An oxidation reaction occurs when oxygen in the air reacts with unsaturated fatty acids. At this point, there is a rancidity of the fat; which results in a bitter taste and an unpleasant odor. Since cold-pressed oils contain more antioxidants, they take longer to get rancid.
It is best to keep at room temperature the olive oil as well as the other oils rich in AGM because they tend to congeal in the cold. For those rich in PFA, they can be stored in the refrigerator for 6 months. Virgin oils can be stored up to 1 year.

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